Φιλιγκράν (Filigree)

Ονομάζουμε έτσι στην κοσμηματοποιία, τις κατασκευές που αποτελούνται από σύρματα δουλεμένα με χειροποίητο τρόπο.

Τα σύρματα αυτά στρίβονται μεταξύ τους σαν κοτσίδα, και συχνά κολλιούνται πάνω σε ένα μοτίβο που έχει δημιουργηθεί πάνω σε μία πλάκα από ξυλοκάρβουνο. Το μοτίβο αυτό έχει κενά, και η όλη κατασκευή δείχνει πολύ ανάλαφρη. Άλλες φορές πάλι, τα σύρματα κολλιούνται πάνω σε ένα φύλλο  μετάλλου.

Στη συνέχεια προστίθενται γράνες, μπίλιες, αλυσίδες, χειροποίητα φυλλαράκια, ή πέτρες και οτιδήποτε κρίνει ο καλλιτέχνης κατάλληλο, για να ολοκληρώσει την κατασκευή του.

Ανάμεσα στους Έλληνες τεχνίτες τα κοσμήματα αυτά,  είχαν την ονομασία «συρματερά». Στην Ινδία, στην Αρμενία, στην Κίνα, οι Ετρούσκοι στην Ιταλική χερσόνησο, οι Κέλτες στη βόρεια Ευρώπη, και πολλοί άλλοι λαοί κατασκεύασαν αντικείμενα φιλιγκράν.

Και στον Ελληνικό χώρο, οι τεχνίτες στην Κρήτη και στις Μυκήνες της προκλασσικής περιόδου, οι τεχνίτες της κλασσικής Ελλάδας, αλλά και οι Βυζαντινοί, και οι τεχνίτες των Ιονίων νήσων και της Ηπείρου την εποχή της Οθωμανικής αυτοκρατορίας, μας έδωσαν κομμάτια απαράμιλλης τέχνης χρησιμοποιώντας την τεχνική φιλιγκράν, που βρίσκονται στα Ελληνικά  μουσεία, Μπενάκη, Λαικής τέχνης, Ιστορικό  κ.λ.π. αλλά και στο Βρετανικό μουσείο,  στο μουσείο  Victoria and Albert του Λονδίνου, στο Λούβρο κ.α.

Στη Γαλλία και την Αγγλία τη δεκαετία 1830 τα κοσμήματα που κατασκευάζονταν με την τεχνική αυτή είχαν την ονομασία cannetille. Σήμερα τα κοσμήματα τύπου φιλιγκράν,  συνήθως δεν παράγονται χειροποίητα, αλλά χρησιμοποιούνται άλλες μέθοδοι παραγωγής, χυτά ή πρεσαριστά.

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Καρφίτσα κατασκευασμένη  από έλληνες τςχνίτες με τη συρματερή τεχνική στα τέλη του 19ου αιώνα.

Στην καρφίτσα περιέχονται και χυτά μέρη (τα χεράκια), και εχει χρησιμοποιηθεί και η τεχνική της κοκκίδωσης. Η καρφίτσα βρίσκεται στο μουσείο Ελληνικής Λαικής Τέχνης στην Πλάκα στην Αθήνα.

http://www.jewelpedia.com/lex214-filigran-filigree.html

Filigree Inlay Art: The Intangible Cultural Heritage of China

The art of filigree inlay, also called “fine gold art,” combines two craft skills. One is filigree, which includes such techniques as nipping, plaiting, jointing, piling, filling, and knitting, and uses gold or silver threads of different weights. The second component, inlay work, involves mounting the stones to the final product and carving or filing the precious metals. The craftsperson can use one or both skills when creating a piece.

History of filigree inlay art

Filigree inlay art originated in the Warring States Period (475-221 BC). At the time, it was called “Jin Yin Cuo,” which involved painting gold and silver on the surface of bronze artworks. With the development of techniques for making thin gold and silver thread, which occurred around the Tang (618-907) and Song (960-1279) dynasties, filigree inlay art advanced in maturity.

The Ming dynasty (1368-1644) was the golden age of filigree inlay art. Many masterpieces were created and inherited. Following the Ming dynasty, filigree inlay art reached its peak in the Qing dynasty (1644-1911). Qing was the last dynasty in China’s history. However, it was ruled by the minority group “Man” for over 260 years.

The art form developed by inheriting essential elements from the previous dynasties and adding new elements over time. Many filigree inlay pieces seen in a private art museum run by the premium jade jewelry brand, Zhaoyi, are replicas of masterpieces from Ming and Qing dynasties.

For a long time, filigree inlay artwork was controlled and appreciated only by royal families and the imperial class. Ordinary people were able to afford some products, but were prohibited from owning pieces bearing certain themes like the dragon and phoenix. Only the royal class could own the highest-quality materials and designs.

Social catastrophe at the end of the Qing dynasty meant the imperial family could no longer hold its position and afford luxury items. Many master goldsmiths escaped the palace to open their own businesses. For a while, many small-scale filigree inlay art studios and workshops were concentrated in southern Beijing, which once had been an area full of all kinds of craftspeople.

This pair of earrings is a replica of a Ming dynasty masterpiece. The earrings are 3-D replicas of lamps used in the Forbidden City. The lamps imitate pavilions with hexagonal profiles. Goldsmiths added seven spherical pendants to the pavilions. When the wearer moves, the pendants swing back and forth. Photo by Eric Welch/GIA.

This is a replica of a Qing dynasty ring, once used as a gift from the mother-in-law to the new daughter-in-law, expressing wishes that she become a smart wife who benefits the family economically. By applying fine gold art, each small bead on the abacus can move freely. Photo by Eric Welch/GIA.

By the end of the 20th century, after the many social upheavals China had experienced over the previous 150 years, filigree inlay art was one of many cultural heritages that were fading away. Very few master goldsmiths were still able to work in this art form, and young people rarely devoted themselves to the diligence and hard work required. Another barrier came from the Cultural Revolution (1966-1976), when wearing or owning jewelry or simply being pretty was considered offensive.

The drafting, internationally, of the concept of Intangible Cultural Heritage in the early 2000s made it possible for filigree inlay art to be picked up and passed along to future generations. (The concept of Intangible Cultural Heritage encompasses practices, knowledge, and skills that are recognized as part of a country’s or community’s cultural heritage.)
https://www.gia.edu/gia-news-research-filigree-master-bai-china

 

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